高中英语必修1(人教版)必考知识点整理
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必修1(人教版)

 

 

Unit1 Friendship

 

 

【重点词汇、短语】

 

1. add up 合计

2. upset vt&vi 弄翻,使…不安,使心烦,扰乱

adj. 心烦意乱的,不舒服的,不适的,难过的.

3. ignore不理睬、忽视

4. calm (使)平静、(使)镇定

calm down 平静/镇定下来

5. have got to 不得不、必须

6. concern (使)担忧、涉及、关系到

be concerned about…关心,挂念

7. go through 经历、经受

8. set down 记下、放下、登记

9. a series of 一系列

10. on purpose 故意

11. in order to 为了……

12. at dusk 在黄昏时刻

13. face to face 面对面地

14. no longer/not…any longer 不再……

15. settle 安家、定居、停留

16. suffer 遭受、忍受、经历

17. suffer from 遭受、患病

18. recover 痊愈、恢复、重新获得

19. get/be tired of 对……厌烦

20. pack 捆扎,包装/包裹

21. pack (sth) up 将(东西)装箱打包

22. get along with 与……相处

23. fall in love 爱上

24. disagree 不同意

25. join in 参加

 

【重点句型】

 

1. It was the first time in a year and a half that I had seen the night face to face. (从句时态用完成时)

这是我一年半以来第一次目睹夜晚。

2. I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature.(强调句)

我不知道这是不是因为我长久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。

3. I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven one evening in order to have a good look at the moon for once by myself.

有一天晚上,我熬到11点半故意不睡觉,为的是独自好好看看月亮一次。

4. Your friend, who doesn’t work hard, asks you to help him cheat in the end-of-term exam.(非限制性定语从句)

你的一个朋友叫你在期末考试中帮他作弊,这个朋友平常不认真学习。

5. If you have some trouble (in) getting along with your friends, you can write to the editor and ask for advice.

如果你在和朋友的相处上有问题,你可以写信给编辑向他征求建议。

6. Add up your score and see how many points you can get.

把你的得分加起来,看看得了多少。

7. What he did has added to our difficulties.

他的所作所为增加了我们的困难。

8. His income adds up to $1000 a month.

他每月的收入共计1000美元。

9. It's no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced.

观看这些已不再是乐趣,因为大自然是你必须体验的。

10. Why is she so concerned about his attitude to her work?

她为什么那么关注他对她的工作的看法?

11. The police asked him to set down what he had seen in a report.

警察让他在报告中写下他所看见的事情。

12. As I was about to go out and search for him, he happened to come in.

正当我打算出去找他时,他恰巧进来。

13. Mr. Jones lives alone and often feels lonely.

琼斯先生单独一人生活,常常感到孤独。

14. We tried to calm him down, but he kept crying.

我们试图让他平静下来,但他仍不停地哭着。

15) Does he dare (to) go out at night in such stormy weather?

他敢在这样一个暴风雨夜外出吗?

16. He would go through fire and water for his country.

他愿为国家赴汤蹈火。

17. That country suffered a heavy loss in the flood.

那个国家在水灾中遭受严重的损失。

 

【语法总结】

 

 

直接引语和间接引语(一)

 

直接引语:直接引述别人的原话。一般前后要加引号。

间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话。间接引语在多数情况下可构成宾语从句且不要加引号。

例: Mr. Black said, “ I’m busy.”

Mr. Black said that he was busy.

 

变化规则

 

 

1. 陈述句的变化规则

 

直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时,用连词that(可省略)引导,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语都要发生相应的变化。

 

(1)人称的变化——人称的变化主要是要理解句子的意思

 

例:1. He said, “ I like it very much.” → He said that he liked it very much.

2. He said to me, “I'v left my book in your room.”

→ He told me that he had left his book in my room.

 

(2)时态的变化

 

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

一般过去时

过去完成时

一般将来时

过去将来时

过去完成时

过去完成时

例:

“I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne.

→Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary.

The boy said, “I’m using a knife.”

→ The boy said that he was using a knife.

▲注意:如果直接引语是客观真理,变为间接引语时,时态不变,如:

He said, “Light travels much faster than sound.”

He said that light travels much faster than sound.

 

(3)指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化

 

直接引语

间接引语

this

that

these

those

now

then

ago

before/earlier

today

that day

yesterday

the day before

tomorrow

the next/following day

the day after tomorrow

In two day’s time

come

go

here

there

the day before yesterday

two days before/earlier

 

2. 疑问句的变化规则

 

如果直接引语是疑问句,变为间接引语时要把疑问句语序变为陈述句语序,句末用句号。

 

(1)一般疑问句:如果直接引语是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,谓语动词是say或said时,要改为 ask 或asked,原问句变为由if/whether 引导的宾语从句。

 

 

例:“Do you think a diary can become your friend?” the writer says.

 

→ The writer asks us if we think a diary can become our friend.

 

(2)特殊疑问句:如果间接引语是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,仍用原来的引导词,但疑问句要变为陈述句。

 

 

例:“What do you want?” he asked me.

 

→ He asked me what I wanted

 

Unit2 English around the world

 

 

【重点词汇、短语】

 

1. because of 因为、由于

2. come up 走近、上来、提出

3. actually 实际上、事实上

4. base 以…为基础,根基

5. at present 目前

6. make use of 利用

7. such as 例如

8. command 命令、指令、掌握

9. request 请求、要求

10. play a part/role in 扮演一个角色

11. recognize 辨认出、承认、公认

12. straight 直接、挺直、笔直的

13. be different from 与…不同

be the same as 和…一样

14. one another 相互,彼此(=each other)

15. at the end of 在…结束时

16. because of 因为(后接名词或名词性短语)

because 因为(后接句子)

17. be based on 根据,依据

18. at present 目前;当今

19. especially 特别,尤其

specially 专门地

20. make use of 利用…

make the best of 充分利用…

21. a large number of 大量的,很多(作主语时,谓语动词用复数)

the number of …的数量(作主语时,谓语动词用单数)

22. in fact = actually= as a matter of fact 事实上

23. make lists of… 列清单

24. included 包括(前面接包括的对象)

including包括(后面接包括的对象)

25. command sb. to do sth. 命令某人去做某事

command + that 从句(从句用should+V原)

26. request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事

request + that 从句(从句用should+V原)

 

【重点句型】

 

1. World Englishes come from those countries where English plays an important role as a first or second language, either because of foreign rule or because of its special role as an international language.(定语从句)

世界英语来自那些以英语为第一或第二语言的国家,英语在这些国家起重要作用,或是因为外国的统治,或是因为其作为国际语言的特殊地位。

2. All languages change when cultures communicate with one another.

当不同的语言互相沟通时,所有的语言都会发生变化。

3. Actually, the English spoken between about AD 450 and 1150 was based more on German than present day English.

实际上,从公元450年到1150年,人们所说的英语更多的是以德语为基础的,而现代英语不是。

4. Would you please come up to my flat for a visit?

请到我的公寓里来坐坐,好吗?

5. Believe it or not, he cheated in the exams.

信不信由你,他在考试中作弊。

6. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English.

以英语作为母语的人,即使他们所讲的语言不尽相同,也可以互相交流。

7. Today the number of people learning English in China is larger than even before.

目前在中国学习英语的人数比以往任何时候都多。

8. It is the duty of a government to provide education for the children of its country. (it作形式主语)

政府的责任是为其国家的小孩提供教育。

9. Reading is one of the best ways of improving your vocabulary and usage.

阅读是帮助你改善词汇及其用法的最好方法之一。

10. Giving commands is less polite than making a request.

发号命令比发出请求粗鲁。

11. We asked her for directions and she told us to go round the corner on the left and keep going straight for two blocks.

我们向她问路,她告诉我们往左边拐弯后直走两个街区。

12. He knows several languages, such as English, French and German.

他懂几种语言,例如英语、法语和德语。

 

【语法总结】

 

 

直接引语和间接引语(二)

 

 

3. 祈使句的变化规则

 

如果直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式,并根据句子意思在不定式前加上tell/ask/order等动词,如果祈使句是否定句,在不定式前面还要加上not。

 

例:The hostess said to us, “Please sit down.”

 

→ The hostess asked us to sit down.

He said, “Don’t make so much noise, boys.”

→ He told the boys not to make so much noise.

 

Unit3 Travel journal

 

 

【重点词汇、短语】

 

1. travel----泛指旅行

journey----指长时间长距离的陆上旅行

voyage----指长距离的水上旅行,也可以指乘飞机旅行

trip----常指短时间短距离的旅行

tour----指周游,巡回旅游

2. prefer A to B 比起B,更喜欢A

prefer doing to doing 比起做…,宁愿做…

prefer to do rather than do 与其做…, 不如…

3. flow through 流过,流经

4. ever since 自从

5. persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事

6. be fond of 喜欢

7. insist on doing 坚持做某事

insist + that 从句(用should+ V原)

8. care about 关心

9. change one’s mind 改变想法

10. altitude 高度

attitude 态度,看法

11. make up one’s mind to do下定决心做某事

= decide to do = make a decision to do

12. give in 让步,屈服

give up 放弃

13. be surprised to… 对…感到惊奇

to one’s surprise 令某人惊讶的是…

14. at last = finally = in the end 最终

15. stop to do 停下来去做某事

stop doing 停止做某事

16. as usual 像往常一样

17. so…that 如此…以至于…

so + adj + a/an + n. + that

such + a/an +adj. + n. + that

18. be familiar with 对…熟悉(人作主语)

be familiar to 为…所熟悉(物作主语)

 

【重点句型】

 

1. My sister and I have dreamed about cycling along the Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 我姐姐和我一直梦想要沿湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅行。

2. The man insisted that he didn’t steal anything and he (should) be set free at once. (陈述语气、虚拟语气)

这男人坚持自己没有偷东西,他坚持说他应该立刻被释放。

3. She gave me a determined look ?C the kind that said she wouldn’t change her mind.

她给了我一个坚定的眼神——这种眼神表明她是不会改变主意的。

4. He is so stubborn that no one can persuade him to do anything.

他是如此的固执以致没有人能说服他做任何事。

5. My sister doesn’t care about details.

我的姐姐是不会考虑细节的。

6. She is a determined woman. Once she determines to do something, she will do it well.

她是个意志坚强的人。如果她下决心做什么事,就一定要做好。

7. He recorded the important events ad his afterthoughts in his travel journal. 在旅行日记中,他记下了重大的事件及自己的想法。

8. I am not familiar with this city, because this is my first visit.

我对这个城市不熟悉,因为这是我的第一次来访。

9. I don’t think it is necessary for us to give in.

我认为我们没有必要让步。

10. The topics of a travel journal can be different from a diary, often including people, things, and events less familiar to readers.

游记的主题可以和日记不同,经常包括那些读者不太熟悉的人和事。

11. It was great fun to put up tents here.

在这儿搭帐篷真好玩。

 

【语法总结】

 

 

现在进行时表将来

 

 

表示在近期按计划或安排要发生的动作。

 

① 瞬时动词的进行时在任何情况下都表示将来含义。这些动词包括go , come , leave,arrive , return等。

I am leaving.

我将要离开了。

I am leaving tomorrow.

我将会明天离开。

② 持续动词的进行时,只有在有将来时间状语或将来语境的情况下才可以表示将来含义。

An American professor is giving a lecture this afternoon.

今天下午一位美国教授将要作报告。(将来含义)

An American professor is giving a lecture.

一个美国教授正在作报告。(进行含义)

 

Unit4 Earthquakes

 

 

【重点词汇、短语】

 

1. right away 立刻,马上(= at once = in no time)

2. asleep 睡着的;熟睡地(fall asleep 入睡)

sleep 睡;睡眠

sleepy 犯困的

3. it seems that/as if… 看来好像…;似乎

4. in ruins 成为废墟

5. the number of …的数量(做主语时,谓语动词用单数)

a number of 大量(做主语时,谓语动词用复数)

6. rescue workers 营救人员

come to one’s rescue 营救某人

7. be trapped 被困

8. how long 多长时间

how often 多久一次,指频率

how soon 还要多久(用于将来时当中,用in+时间段回答)

9. hundreds of thousands of 成千上万的

10. dig out 挖出

11. shake----泛指“动摇,震动”,常指左右、上下动摇,也可以指人“震惊,颤抖”

例:She felt the earth shaking under him.

She was shaken with anger.

quake---- 指较强烈的震动,如地震

The building quaked on its foundation.

tremble---- 指人由于寒冷、恐惧、不安等引起的身体的抖动或声音的颤抖

例:Suddenly I saw her lips begin to tremble and tears begin to flow down her cheeks.

shiver---- 多指寒冷引起的颤抖、哆嗦

例:A sudden gust of cold wind made me shiver.

12. rise (rose—risen)---- vi, 上升;升起, 无被动语态

give rise to 引起

raise(raised—raised)---- vt, 举起;筹集;养育

arise ( arose—arisen)----vt, 出现(常指问题或现象)

13. injure---- 常指因意外事故造成的损伤,也可以指感情上名誉上的伤害

例:He was injured in a car accident.

harm---- 泛指“伤害,损害”,既可以指有生命的,也可以指无生命的

例:He was afraid that his fury(暴怒) would harm the child.

His business was harmed for some reason.

hurt---- 既可以指肉体上的伤害,也可以指精神上的伤害

例:She hurt her leg when she fell.

He felt hurt at your word.

wound---- 一般指枪伤、刀伤等在战场上受的伤

例:The bullet wounded him in the arm.

14. be prepared for …= make preparations for… 为…做准备

15. in one’s honor 向…表示敬意;为纪念

be/feel honored to do… 做…感到很荣幸

16. make /give/deliver a speech 发言

opening speech 开幕词

17. give/ provide shelter to… 向…提供庇护所

seek shelter from… 躲避

18. happen to do sth. 偶然;碰巧

happen ----指偶然发生

take place----指事先计划好的事情发生

 

【重点句型】

 

1. The number of people who were killed or injured in the earthquake reached more than 400,000.(定语从句)

死伤的人数达到40多万。

2. The army organized the rescue workers to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. (定语从句)

部队组织救援人员将受困的人们挖出来,将死者掩埋。

3. All hope was not lost. = Not all hope was lost.(部分否定)

不是所有的希望都破灭了。

4. None of us were allowed to go there.(全部否定)

我们全都不许去那里。

5. He rescued the man from drowning.

他救了一男子使之免遭溺毙。

6. An earthquake left the whole city in ruins.

地震过后,全城到处是残垣断壁。

7. I feel highly honoured by your trust.

得到你的信任,我感到非常荣幸。

8. Professor Yu organized his thoughts before giving the speech.

于教授在演讲之前组织了一下思路。

9. Many people took shelter from the rain in the department store.

许多人在百货公司里避雨。

10. It seemed that the world was at an end as the earthquake destroyed nearly everything.

世界似乎到了末日,因为地震几乎毁了一切。

11. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.

人们开始纳闷,这场灾难还会持续多久?

12. They used candles all the time instead of electricity.

他们一直用蜡烛,没有用电。

13. The one million people of the city, who thought little of these strange events, went to bed as usual that night.(非限制性定语从句)

这城市的一百万居民几乎都没有把这些奇怪的情况当一回事,当天晚上照常上床睡觉了。

14. We’d better prepare him for the bad news.

我们最好让他做好知道这个坏消息的心理准备。

15. The rubbish gave out a smelly gas.

垃圾发出一阵臭味。

16. I am getting in touch with him right away.

我马上跟他联系。

17. Are you willing to do public service work without pay?

你愿意无偿从事公益活动吗?

18. Do you easily lose heart when you are in trouble?

你处于不幸中时容易丧失信心吗?

 

【语法总结】

 

 

定语从句

 

概念:在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。

成分:先行词,即被定语从句修饰的名词或代词;关系代词:that,which,who(宾格为whom,所有格为whose);或者关系副词where,when,why等。关系代词或关系副词处在先行词和定语从句之间,起着连接主从句的作用。

 

1. 关系代词that的用法

 

关系代词that在定语从句中既能指人,也能指物;既能做主语,也能做宾语。

例:1)A plane is a machine that can fly. (指物,作主语)

2)The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious. (指物,作宾语,可省略)

3)Who is the man that is reading a book over there? (指人,作主语)

4)The girl (that) we saw yesterday was Jim’s sister,(指人,作宾语,可省略)

 

2. 关系代词which的用法

 

关系代词which在定语从句中只能指物,既可以做宾语也能作主语。

例:1)They planted some trees which didn’t need much water. (作主语)

2)The fish (which) we bought this morning were not fresh. (作宾语,可省略)

 

3. 关系代词who,whom的用法

 

关系代词who,whom 只能指人,在定语从句中分别作主语和宾语

例:1)The foreigner who helped us yesterday is from USA.(作主语)

2)The person to whom you just talked to is Mr. Li. (作宾语,可省略)

 

4. 关系代词whose的用法

 

关系代词whose为关系代词who的所有格形式,其先行词既可以是人也可以是物,whose和它所修饰的名词在定语从句中既可以做主语也可以做宾语。

例:1)This is the scientist whose name is known all over the world. (指人,作主语)

2) The room whose window faces south is mine. (指物,作主语)

3)He has written a book whose name I’ve forgotten. (指物,作宾语)

 

5. 关系副词when的用法

 

关系副词when在定语从句中作时间状语

例:1)I’ll never forget the time when (=during which) we worked on the farm.

2) Do you remember the afternoon when (=on which) we first met three years ago?

 

6. 关系副词where在定语从句中的用法

 

关系副词where在定语从句中做地点状语

例:1)This is the place where( =at/in which) we first met.

2) The hotel where (= in which ) we stayed wasn’t very clean.

 

7. 关系副词why在定语从句中的用法

 

关系副词why在定语从句中作原因状语

例: 1). I didn’t get a pay rise, but this wasn’t the reason why(= for which) I left.

2). The reason why (=for which) he has late was that he missed the train.

 

Unit5 Nelson Mandela – a modern hero

 

 

【重点词汇、短语】

 

1. selfish 自私的

selfless 无私的

2. devote oneself to… 致力于;献身于

3. fight against 对抗,反对

fight for 为…而战

4. principle 原则

principal 校长;主要的

5. offer guidance to… 给…提供指导

6. out of work 失业

7. join 加入(组织,俱乐部,成为其中一员)

join in 参加(活动)

take part in 参加(活动)

8. as + adj +as one can 尽可能…

= as + adj. +as possible

9. as a matter of fact 事实上(=in fact)

10. blow up 爆炸,炸掉

11. set up 建立;set about 着手,开始做( set about doing sth.);set off 出发,动身 ; set out 开始,出发(set out to do sth.)

12. be sentenced to 被判…

13. be equal to 与…相等;胜任

14. be proud of 为…感到自豪

15. give out 分发

give off 散发出(气味)

16. die for 为…而死

die of 死于(自身原因,如疾病)

die from 死于(外在原因,如车祸)

17. realize one’s dream of … 实现..的梦想

18. only 位于句首时,要主谓部分倒装

例:Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.

Only in this way, can we protect the environment better.

 

【重点句型】

 

1. The time when I first met him was a very difficult period of my life.

第一次见到他的时候是在我一生中非常艰难的时期。(定语从句)

2. It is a doctor’s job to advise patients on health problems.

医生的职责就是向病人提供有关健康的建议。

3. As a matter of fact, I was worried about whether I would be out of work.

事实上我担心我是不是会失业。

4. After getting up, he always drinks a glass of water, which he believes is good for his health. (非限制性定语从句)

每天起床后,他都喝一杯水,他认为这对他的身体有好处。

5. The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. (定语从句)

过去30年来所出现的大量法律剥夺我们的权利,阻挡我们的进步,一直到今天,我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。

6. In his life, he has always tried to help those who are less fortunate than himself. (定语从句)

在他的一生中,他总是设法帮助那些比他不幸的人。

7. Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.(倒装句)

只有到这个时候我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。

8. Only some of the children seemed to have understood it.

似乎只有一部分孩子明白。

9. The school where I studied only two years was three kilometers away.

那所我仅仅读了两年的学校有三公里远。(定语从句)

10. The parts of town where they lived were places decided by white people.(过去分词作后置定语)

他们在城里的住宅区都是由白人决定的。

11. Before he came to power, he was once put in prison for years.

在掌权之前,他曾经坐了几年牢。

12. This was my reward after working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks.

这是我毕生为争取黑人的平等权利而斗争所得到的回报。

13. He was sentenced to three years in prison for stealing.

他因偷窃被判处三年监禁。

14. He set up a black law firm to help those poor black people.

他开设了一间黑人律师事务所帮助那些穷苦的黑人。

15. In 1963, I helped him blow up some government buildings.

在1963年,我帮助他炸毁了一些政府大楼。

16. My family could not continue to pay my school fee.

我的家庭无法继续支付我的学费。

17. He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep.(虚拟语气)

在午餐的休息时间和晚上我们本应该睡觉的时候他教授我们。


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